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COSC 1301--Intro to computing: Citing Web pages

Find good quality information for your paper and presentation.

What is a DOI?

DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. It is a system developed by a group of international publishers to help Web users find specific documents on the Web. A DOI is a permanent locator for a digital object that has been registered with a registration agency such as CrossRef. ( To find an article or other document with a DOI follow these steps:

1. Copy the DOI

2. Go to the CrossRef site and paste the DOI in the DOI resolver search box. 

3. You should be given the document page, unless it is not freely available on the Web.  

Citing Web pages

Basic pattern for a Web article or book: If the page is a published article or a book that is published on the Web, use the pattern for a magazine or journal article or eBook. Say "Retreived from" and add the URL or DOI if available.

Web page pattern:

Page author’s Lastname, Initials. (date published or last updated, or (n. d.) if a date is not available). Title of the page: Subtitle of the page. Retrieved from [or] DOI: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

Example: The page has no personal author so we used the organization as the author. When citing large organizations, start with the main organization name first, then the smaller group name of the organization. For example: 

American Psychological Association, Office of Public Affairs. (2009). Psychological factors help explain slow reaction to global warming, says APA task force. Retrieved from

[Note: Break long URLs after slashes]


Just ASK!