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Nursing Research: Citing other things

If you are a nursing student, this guide is for you!

How to cite information from personal interviews or e-mails

  • In person interviews or e-mails: Interviews you conducted yourself should not be included in the references list. Instead, use an in-text parenthetical citation.
  • Any non-retrievable online posting, such as an e-mail, is treated the same way.

For example, in the text of the following paper: L. Smith is the name of the person interviewed or the person who responded in an e-mail:


At least one member of the research team has expressed reservations about the design of the study. (L. Smith, personal interview, February 6, 2000).     

As an e-mail: (L. Smith, personal communication, February 6, 2000)

  • Audiovisual media: (motion pictures, audio or television broadcasts, including podcasts, and visual objects such as maps, artwork or photos. (see page 209 of Publication Manual of the APA for more examples)
  • Motion picture pattern:

Producer last name, A. A. (Producer). & Director last name, B. B. (Director). (year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

  • Music recording pattern:

Writer, A. A. (copyright year). Title of song [Recorded  by B. B. Artist if different from writer] On Title of album [medium of recording CD, Record, Cassette, etc.]. Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from copyright year)  

  • Video pattern:

American Psychological Association. (Producer). (year). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from http://www.apa.org/videos/

 

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